Hospitals of America
The first hospital in the United States opened in 1751 in Philadelphia. Started by the Quakers, and headed by Benjamin Franklin and Dr. Thomas Bond, Pennsylvania Hospital's mission was to care for the sick who lacked proper home care. Today, there are about 7000 hospitals in the United States delivering general and specialized health care. Half of these hospitals have less than 100 beds. In addition to this primary mission, many hospitals offer education and training for medical personnel, and conduct vital medical research.
Johns Hopkins Hospital
Started by a gift from Quaker merchant Johns Hopkins, the hospital opened in 1889 followed by the medical school in 1893. Under the direction of Dr. William Halsted it offered the first formal training program specifically for surgeons. Dr. Halsted introduced the use of surgical gloves to the operating room and popularized sterile technique. Dr. Harvey Cushing, one of Dr. Halsted's residents, is considered the father of modern neurosurgery. Dr. William Osler, its first physician-in-chief, started a system of medical clinics and was a noted teacher of medical students using the bedside as a classroom.
Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania
Recognizing the special needs of sick children, The Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania opened in 1855. This followed the groundwork of Dr. Benjamin Rush, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and Professor of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania: 1789-1813. Dr. Rush had a special interest in "Diseases peculiar to children" and is considered one of the founders of the specialty of Pediatrics.
Mayo Clinic was formed by pioneering Dr. William Worrall Mayo, who settled in Rochester, Minn, and his sons, Drs. William James Mayo and Charles Horace Mayo, who joined his practice in 1883 and 1888. Other doctors and researchers joined them to form the world's first private integrated group practice. The clinic developed a reputation of excellence for patient care and medical research. Doctors and students from around the world came to learn their techniques. Mayo Clinic, Rochester Methodist Hospital and Saint Marys Hospital now form an integrated medical center.